Osteoarthritis is a chronic and degenerative disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage, synovium (smooth lining of joint), ligaments and subchondral bone (providing support for cartilage of articular surface).
It is the most common type of arthritis & associated with a breakdown of joint cartilage mainly due to mechanical stress on weight bearing joints.
In OA, the top layer of cartilage breaks down. As the cartilage deteriorates and tendons / ligaments stretch causes pain.
Eventually cartilage completely erodes and the opposing bone ends rubs with each other.
This leads to:
- Pain that may be intermittent or chronic
- Stiffness in the morning and after rest
- Loss or restricted mobility.
- It commonly occurs in the weight-bearing joints like hips, kness and spine.
In OA small pieces of bone and fragments of cartilage are found in synovial fluid
Symptoms of OA:
- Joint pain
- Swollen joint
- Loss of movement
- Muscle weakness
Causes of OA:
- Overweight / Obesity
- Genetic defect